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Marshall; bankruptcy judges are not constitutionally vested with jurisdiction to decide state common law claims against an entity that is not otherwise part of the bankruptcy proceedings; Northern Pipeline; Norberg. Ickes; the border search doctrine is not subject to a First Amendment exception; the government's interest in preventing the entry of unwanted persons and effects is at its zenith at the international border Employee handbooks; employee manual; human resources; anti-fraternization policy; workplace romance; non-fraternization policy; anti-fraternization policies; employee rights; dating a coworker; coworker relationships; employment lawyer. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act; the allegations in the complaint, taken together, must give rise to an inference of scienter, which requires that the defendant made false statements, knowing that they were false. Makor Issues & Rights, Ltd.; Private Securities Litigation Reform Act survives motion to dismiss only if reasonable person would deem inference of scienter cogent and at least as compelling as any opposing inference; scienter. Criminal defendant due process rights are violated if the prosecutor charges defendant with a more serious crime after defendant exercises statutory right to challenge conviction for less serious offense arising from the same conduct. a criminal defendant in federal court is not entitled to a dismissal of the indictment because the prosecutor failed to present to the grand jury substantial exculpatory evidence. no need for severance exists until a defendant makes a convincing showing that he has both important testimony to give concerning one count and a strong need to refrain from testifying on the other.

Greenmail; interloper; standing; shareholder must have a proper purpose reasonably related to his interest as a stockholder and must further prove some credible evidence of wrongdoing sufficient to warrant continued investigation. 275 Madison Management Corp; A managing general partner of a limited partnership may be removed from the partnership by a limited partner if the managing partner's agent engages in fraudulent conduct. Irving; Where members of a limited liability partnership share no benefit with a partner accused of misconduct, have no direct supervision or control, and have no knowledge of the partner's misconduct, they are statutorily protected. Gursky; New York's Partnership Law provision limiting the personal liability of partners in an LLP does not shield a general partner in a registered LLP from personal liability for breaches of the partnership's or partners' obligations to each o Taghipour v. Sieg; Under Utah law, a sale of property is defined as the conveyance of title to the purchaser for a valuable consideration consisting of the purchase price, or contract of sale, whereby some estate in land passes. In the Matter of 1545 Ocean Avenue, LLC; A petitioner who seeks dissolution of an LLC must establish, in the operating agreement or articles of incorporation, that management is unable or unwilling to permit or promote the stated purpose. (Tyson I); Directors may not ask for shareholder approval of an incentive stock option plan and then later to distribute shares in such a way as to undermine the objectives of that plan. Gifford; The intentional violation of a shareholder approved stock option plan, coupled with fraudulent disclosures, constitutes conduct that is disloyal to the corporation and is therefore an act in bad faith. Shareholder Litigation; When the interests of common stockholders diverge from preferred stockholders, the directors of a corporation have a duty to exercise their discretion in favor of the interests of common stockholders. United States; When liability under Rule 10b-5 is predicated on a defendant's failure to disclose a material fact, positive proof of reliance is not a prerequisite to recovery. Corinthian Colleges, Inc.; A complaint for securities fraud must allege loss causation, so that the defendant is provided notice of what the relevant economic loss might be or the causal connection. Shareholder Litigation; Acquisition tender offer by a controlling shareholder must be non-coercive: non-waivable majority of the minority tender condition; consummate a prompt short-form merger; no retributive threats. Defendant possessed a firearm during enumerated offense. Pereira; joinder of offenses; joinder of criminal charges with multiple offenses is proper when the offenses charged are of similar character or are based on the same act or transaction or parts of a common scheme or plan. United States; For purposes of obtaining a fair trial, it is sufficient if the jurors can lay aside their impressions or opinions and render a verdict based on the evidence presented in court. King; taking and analyzing a cheek swab of the arrestee's DNA is, like fingerprinting and photographing, is a legitimate police booking procedure and is reasonable under the Four Amendment. Cruel and unusual punishment is an evolving doctrine and depends on the prevailing societal views of the relative punishment afforded to a specific crime.Without red flags, directors have no reason to suspect wrongdoing; does stockholder complaint create a reasonable doubt that board of directors could have properly exercised its independent and disinterested business judgment in responding. P.; Under section 36(b) of the Investment Company Act, a financial adviser has a fiduciary duty and owes an obligation of candor in negotiation, as well as honesty in performance, but not for negotiating own salary. Jordan; The proper remedy for a freeze-out is to restore the minority shareholder as nearly as possible to the position she would have been in had there been no wrongdoing; close corporation; dividend; injunction. Antinora; The general rule of partnership law is that, in the absence of an agreement, the law presumes that partners and joint adventurers intended to participate equally in the profits and losses of the common enterprise. Superior Court; In forming a partnership, the partners obligate themselves to share the risks and benefits and carry out the enterprise with the highest good faith toward each other; fiduciary. 55 Perry Co; Partnership law provides that, subject to any contrary agreement between the partners, no person may become a member of the partnership without the consent of the other partners. Dreifuerst; Unless otherwise agreed, partners who have not wrongfully dissolved the partnership have a right to wind up the partnership and force a sale of the partnership assets; partnership at will. Cuban; Insider trading liability under the misappropriation theory is premised on the undisclosed use of confidential information for personal benefit, in breach of a duty not to do so. Procedural rules usually do not apply retroactively. absent a showing of cause and prejudice attendant to a state procedural waiver, a federal habeas corpus review of a waived objection to the admission of a confession at trial is barred. Qualified immunity does not apply to deprivation of constitutional rights; coercive police interrogation resulting in statements not used at trial violates Constitution only if interrogator's conduct shocks the conscience. A criminal defendant's initial appearance before a judicial officer triggers the attachment of the Sixth Amendment right to counsel. Burden of persuasion; burden of production; insanity; mens rea; voluntary.Business judgment rule; good faith; directors owe corporation and shareholders duty of good faith; business judgment rule does not save directors from liability for the conscious disregard of the consequences of corporate action. AFSCME Employees Pension Plan; Bylaws may be unilaterally adopted by shareholders when they appropriately relate to corporate processes rather than substantive decisions or Board's fiduciary duties. Stephens; misrepresentation material if substantial likelihood disclosure of omitted fact would have been viewed by reasonable investor as having significantly altered total mix of information made available; proxy. Shareholder Derivative Litig; Plaintiff must show directors knew not discharging fiduciary obligations or directors demonstrated conscious disregard for responsibilities; business-judgment rule; exculpatory clause; gross negligence. Stephens; Shareholder ratification applies only to circumstances where fully informed shareholder vote approves director action that does not legally require shareholder approval in order to become legally effective. Cullman; director is "interested" when he derives benefit from transaction that is not shared with other shareholders but lacks "independence" when his decision about transaction controlled directly or indirectly by another; disinterested. Shareholders Litig; Pre-suit demand excused only if shown that a majority of the members of board of directors is either personally interested, or is so dominated by or beholden to an interested director that discretion sterilized. Sidhu; Gross negligence is conduct that constitutes reckless indifference, or actions that are without the bounds of reason, and constitutes a breach of the duty of care; bad faith; exculpatory clause. Horn; The question of whether director is required to offer business opportunity to corporation before taking advantage of it is determined according to relationship between particular director and corporation; accounting; constructive trust. Consolidated Shareholder Litig; A director who uses inside knowledge to enrich employees while avoiding shareholder-imposed requirements is not acting loyally and in good faith as a fiduciary; business-judgment rule. Inter-Tel (Delaware), Inc; directors' defensive actions; burden is on directors to identify legitimate corporate purpose, and show that actions reasonable relation to purpose did not preclude shareholders from exercising right to vote. Nasser; Implied authority is agent reasonably believes he has, shown by evidence of acquiescence of the principal; actual authority; apparent agency; apparent agent; apparent authority; express agency; implied agency. Prometheus Development Company, Inc; A partnership agreement provision that allows an interested partner to count its votes is manifestly unreasonable under California corporations law; limited partner; limited partnership; ratification. Derivative Litigation; the law presumes directors act on an informed basis, in good faith, and in the honest beliefof best interests of company; business judgment rule; derivative action; duty of good faith; fiduciary duty. new constitutional rules of criminal procedure will not be applicable to those cases that have become final before the new rules are announced. Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine aplies to Fourth amendment, not Fifth Amendment; although Miranda requires the suppression of an un-warned admission, the admissibility of any subsequent statement turns on whether it was made voluntarily. Beard; capital defendant and family say no mitigating evidence, but defense lawyer must make reasonable efforts to obtain and review prosecution evidence of aggravation at sentencing phase of trial; death penalty. United States; repeated requests to commit a crime and pleas for sympathy establish entrapment; if defendant's criminal conduct arises from the inducement of law enforcement officers, not the intention of the defendant. Heckenkamp; absent clear warnings, connecting a personal computer to a computer network does not relinquish an otherwise objectively reasonable expectation of privacy; warrantless search. Villarreal; individuals have a reasonable expectation that their letters and other sealed containers will not be opened by government agents without a warrant when they are surrendered to a carrier. Spears; Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1996 creates exception to civil liability for aural interception during business use of a telephone extension; scope of exception limited to the business purpose. Missouri; the constitution prohibits the use of visible shackles during the penalty phase of a criminal trial unless the use is justified by an essential state interest specific to the defendant on trial. Washington; out-of-court statements are inadmissible into evidence if defendant has no opportunity to cross-examine speaker, unless witness is unavailable and defendant has prior opportunity to cross-examine the declarant; hearsay. Gant; Police may search vehicle incident to recent occupant's arrest only if arrestee is within reaching distance of passenger compartment at time search or reasonable to believe vehicle contains evidence offense of arrest; stare decisis. Redding; school search permissible if scope of measures adopted is reasonably related to objectives of search and not excessively intrusive; in loco parentis; qualified immunity. Louisiana; A criminal defendant's consent to police-initiated interrogation cannot be presumed involuntary simply because the court previously appointed a lawyer to represent him; preliminary hearing. United States; Although acquittals may preclude retrial on counts on which the same jury hangs, the consideration of hung counts has no place in the issue preclusion analysis for double jeopardy purposes; hung jury. Gant; Police may search vehicle incident to recent occupant's arrest only if arrestee is within reaching distance of passenger compartment at time of search and reasonable to believe vehicle contains evidence of offense of arrest. Michigan; exclusionary rule not apply suppress evidence obtained in violation knock-and-announce rule; exclusionary rule; fruit-of-the-poisonous-tree-doctrine; inevitable discovery rule; no-knock search warrant. Illinois; Whatever warnings suffice for Miranda's purposes will also be sufficient to safeguard the right to counsel in the context of post-indictment questioning; indict; sixth amendment. Traditional Baking, Inc.; clients are the principals, the attorney is an agent; under law of agency, principal is bound by agent's deeds, except attorney misconduct outside the scope of employment. 8(a)(2) short and plain statement of the claim showing that pleader is entitled to relief, give the defendant fair notice of claim and grounds upon which it rests. General Motors Corp.; sanctionable spoliation is destruction or material alteration of evidence or failure to preserve property for another's use as evidence in pending or reasonably foreseeable litigation; manufacturer opportunity to inspect Harnden v. Darue Engineering & Manufacturing; federal forum for federal tax litigation sufficiently substantial for exercise of federal question jurisdiction; federal title law; division of labor between state and federal courts United Oil Co. Parts Associates, Inc.; may obtain discovery regarding any matter, not privileged, relevant to claim or defense; other lawsuits regarding similar products relevant to a defendant's failure to warn; indemnify; indemnity agreement. UBS Warburg LLC; corporate counsel has duty to communicate discovery obligations so all relevant information is discovered, retained, and produced; once duty to preserve attaches, identify all sources of discoverable information. Injury in fact and redressability must be established even under a federal statute conferring a private cause of action, private right of action, standing, personal injury, public, injury in fact. Federal cigarette advertising regulations preempt conflicting state regulations, congress expressly preempts state or local action, conflicting state regulation must yield to federal law, supremacy clause. Seelig, Inc., Barriers to commercial traffic between states, direct or indirect, violate the Commerce Clause when purpose and effect of such barriers is to suppress or mitigate the consequences of competition between states. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority; Laws that favor government operations, but that treat all private businesses equally, do not violate the Commerce Clause; dormant commerce clause. Police dog; drug dog sniff luggage; K-9 dog; investigative detention; when officer's observations lead him reasonably to believe that luggage contains narcotics, officer may detain luggage briefly to investigate circumstances that aroused his suspicion. when police investigation is no longer general inquiry into unsolved crime but focuses on particular suspect in police custody, must allow opportunity to consult with lawyer or warn of absolute constitutional right to remain silent. Allapattah Services; class action, if named plaintiff meets requirement, supplemental jurisdiction over claims in same case or controversy even if claims for less than jurisdictional amount for diversity jurisdiction; Article III. Three branches of government; grant of executive authority cannot be overridden by a congressional veto, once congress has acted to vest authority in an administrative agency, it cannot act to overturn the action of that agency in the absence of further l Sequestration, budget appropriations cannot be delegated to a legislator the delegation of executive functions to a legislative administrator violates the constitutionally imposed doctrine of separation of powers. When officers have reasonable suspicion that person has committed crime or is about to commit crime, they may temporarily detain individual for questioning no longer than necessary to serve purposes of stop.

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